The term Industrial Waste refers to waste generated in an industrial process, also known generally as “refuse”. It includes materials rendered useless during the manufacturing process, such as by factories, mills, and mining operations. The resulting wastes must be disposed of properly to prevent damage to the environment.
Non-hazardous Industrial Detritus
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a disposal hierarchy for non-hazardous refuse. This hierarchy is shaped like an inverted triangle and lists the most environmentally friendly processes at the top. This hierarchy recognizes that there are no single best waste management approaches for all types of non-hazardous detritus.
Recycling is a key practice for reducing non-hazardous detritus because it keeps salvageable products out of the detritus stream. By recycling and reusing non-hazardous detritus, businesses can avoid putting toxic and dangerous materials in landfills. There are four types of non-hazardous refuse.
The F-list includes detritus resulting from common manufacturing processes, while the K-list comprises detritus generated by specific industries. The P and U-lists include detritus produced by the manufacturing of commercial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. These detritus must be disposed of according to the EPA’s rules.
Hazardous Industrial Waste
Hazardous industrial waste refers to the detritus that contains dangerous goods. These goods are generally in a condition of deterioration and are therefore disposed of in a hazardous manner. Hazardous refuse can be classified as either solid or liquid.
It is important to separate these items for proper disposal. Once they are separated, hazardous detritus are separated into different categories. This makes it easier for the company to control their costs. To make the process of hazardous industrial waste management as easy as possible, it is essential to identify the different types of waste.
Hazardous refuse is characterized by its characteristics, including its ignitability, corrosively, and reactivity. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all detritus generators are required to determine whether a particular type of detritus is hazardous. Hazardous wastes must be identified by performing a series of tests, including a chemical or physical analysis.
Biodegradable Industrial Waste
Industrial wastes can be either biodegradable or non-biodegradable. Biodegradable wastes are those that will break down into non-toxic matter in the presence of bacteria and microorganisms. These wastes are similar to household wastes and are generated by industries such as food and dairy plants, textile mills, and slaughterhouses.
These types of wastes do not require special treatment or disposal methods and will degrade naturally over time. Fortunately, there are methods to properly dispose of biodegradable wastes. The data for biodegradable municipal trash are collected from companies and municipalities that report their annual amounts. The data are supplemented throughout the year based on population and trash statistics.
The Biomass Atlas also includes calculated amounts of biodegradable municipal trash. In Finland, municipal trash statistics, research data, and company data are used to calculate this trash. The figures are then used to inform government policy and regulations. In the United States, the average amount of biodegradable municipal trash per person per year is 77 kilos.
Biodegradable refuse is commonly composted in landfills to recover the energy contained in the trash. In this way, biodegradable refuse can be safely disposed of in landfills. The bio-gases released are useful for electricity generation. However, landfills are only able to handle a small portion of refuse.
Regulations for Industrial Sewage
There are regulations that govern the management of hazardous sewage and non-hazardous refuse. These sewages have certain characteristics, such as ignitability, reactivity, toxicity, or corrosively. While non-hazardous refuse are less dangerous, they must be disposed of correctly.
Regardless of its composition, improper disposal can result in expensive fines and bad publicity. In addition to the hazard posed to the environment, improper sewage handling can be harmful to your company and your reputation. Regulated refuses must follow the proper procedures in order to protect the environment and human health.
In addition, there are rules and regulations regarding how to properly dispose of hazardous sewages. EPA and state agencies have created guidelines to regulate this type of sewage. To avoid violating these rules, industrial sewages must be segregated and properly disposed of. Some of the chemicals are so dangerous that specialist handling may be required.
Once properly disposed of, the sewage must undergo rigorous inspection. In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act (www.congress.gov/bill/102), an amendment to the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These regulations outline specific requirements for land disposal of hazardous sewage.
The rules also include treatment standards for hazardous sewage. Before the Federal Facility Compliance Act, DOE sites did not have the necessary technology to treat their sewage, so the Secretary of Energy required each of these facilities to develop Site Treatment Plans. If a facility was not compliant with these regulations, they could face fines up to $10,000 per day.